Introduction to C Programming

C programming language, 1972 dennis m. It is a general-purpose, procedural, mandatory computer programming language developed by Ritchie to improve the UNIX operating system in Bell Telephone Laboratories.C is the most commonly used computer language.It continues to be used on the number one popularity scale, along with the Python and Java programming language, which is equally popular and is most widely used among modern software programmers.

Why Should I Learn C Programming?

The C programming language is a great and mandatory language for students and working professionals, especially when working in engineering, software development.C Here are some important benefits of learning programming:

  • Easy to learn
  • Structured and ready-to-use language
  • Can produce efficient programs
  • Handle low-level activities
  • Easily compiled on a variety of computer platforms

C Some Facts About Programming

  • C was invented to write an operating system called UNIX.
  • C is the successor to the B language introduced in the early 1970s.
  • Language C was formalized by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) in 1988.
  • UNIX OS is written entirely in C.
  • Today, C is the most widely used and popular System Programming Language.
  • Most of the most advanced software has been implemented using C.

Say Hello to the World in C Language

Let's show you the C-language program "Hello World" to get you a little excited about C programming and show you how easy it is:


int main() {
   printf("Hello World!</stdio.h> n");
   return 0;

C Programming Applications

C was initially used for system development work, especially for the programs that make up the operating system.C has been adopted as a system development language because it generates code that runs almost as fast as the code written in assembly.Some examples of C usage:

  • Operating systems
  • Language Compilers
  • Assembler (machine language translators of programming languages)
  • Text Editors
  • Print Spoolers
  • Network Drivers
  • Modern Programs
  • Databases
  • Language Interpreters
  • Tools
  • Microprocessor Applications

This training series is designed for software programmers who need to understand the C programming language starting from scratch.This C programming trainingwill give you enough information about the C programming language, where you can take yourself to a higher level of expertise.

Before continuing with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of Computer Programming terminologies.A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will help you understand the concepts of C programming and move quickly towards learning. However, if you have no previous experience in any language, C programla is one of the first languages to be learned.

Necessary Preparations and Programs

The components and programs required to start programming C are quite minimal. With a text editor and compiler, you can even start programming c even now. Although language C is portable, some changes may need to be made to make a C code written for a particular system work when it is transferred to another system.

In the years when language C was first prepared, 16bit systems were widely used instead of 32bit and 64bit systems. For this reason, due to the advancement of technology and the proliferation of 64bit systems, many updates have been made in C language and compilers. In order to maintain its up-to-dateness and availability, it is absolutely necessary to use up-to-date resources. In addition, 64bit systems should be used due to our need for forward-looking learning and knowledge.

We will use MacOS and then Linux (armbian) operating systems to create C programming content. But you can use any operating system you want

Text Editor

This will be used to write your program.Examples of several editors include Text editing tools such as Windows Notebook, NotePAD++, Sublime Text, vim, vi, nano, and more.

The name and version of text editors may vary on different operating systems.For example, you can use wiki or vi on Linux/UNIX systems when you use Notepad in Windows, and on MacOS systems, you can use the incoming text editor or Sublime Textby default.

Here, the choice of text editor is entirely in line with your wishes. You can try any text compiler and switch to another.

Also, if you do not want to use ordinary "text editor", you can check out the IDE (Integrated development environment) that we have compiled for those who want to encode C and C++ in our article here.

Files that you create with your editor are called source files, which contain program source code.The source files for C programs are usually saved with the " .c " extension.

Before you start programming, it is worth knowing that you have mastered the text editor that you will use and exactly how it is used.

C Programming Compiler

C codes written to the source file are human-readable sources for your program. Your computer or the machine/environment you are using must be "compiled" in machine language to run the program according to the instructions given.

The compiler compiles the source code into the executable program, and the code you write is ready to run.The most commonly used and free-to-use compiler is the GCC, also known as the GNU C/C++ compiler, which you can use different compilers if you wish. For example, HP or Solaris compilers.

The following section describes how to set up the GCC compiler on various operating systems.We are all talking about C/C++ because the GNU GCC compiler works for both C and C++ programming languages.

Linux/UNIXte Setup

If you are using Linux or UNIX, check that GCC is installed on your system by entering the following command at the command line:

gcc -v

If you have a GNU compiler installed on your system, it should print a message such as:

Using built-in specs.
Target: i386-redhat-linux
Configured with: .. /configure --prefix=/usr .......
Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.1.2 20080704 (Red Hat 4.1.2-46)

If the GCC is not installed or you have not received any feedback reporting a version, here's how to set it up:

  • Start by updating the package list:
sudo apt update
  • Install the required components at once:
sudo apt install build-essential

With build-essential setup, components/commands such as gcc, g++, make are installed that are required to compile. You can check with the gcc -v or gcc –version command to confirm that the installation has been installed.

Setup on macOS

If you are using macOS, the easiest way to get GCC is to download the Xcode development environment from Apple's website or App Store and follow the simple installation instructions.After installing Xcode, you will be able to use the GNU compiler for C/C++. After Xcode installation, you can confirm the installation by typing gcc -v in the Terminal. If you are output as follows, setup is complete.

Configured with: --prefix=/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr --with-gxx-include-dir=/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/SDKs/MacOSX.sdk/usr/include/c++/4.2.1
Apple clang version 11.0.3 (clang-1103.0.32.62)
Target: x86_64-apple-darwin20.2.0
Thread model: posix
InstalledDir: /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/bin

Setup in Windows

To install GCC in Windows, you need to install MinGW.To set up MinGW, go to the MinGW homepage and follow the link to the MinGW download page.Download the latest version of the MinGW installation program,<sürüm>which should be called</sürüm> MinGW-.exe.

Add a thousand subsysectorys of your MinGW setup to your PATH environment variable so that you can specify these tools with their simple names at the command line.

After setup is complete, you will be able to run gcc, g++, ar, ranlib, dlltool, and several other GNU tools from the Windows command line.

In our next article, we will examine the Program Structures as "Program Structure".