Differences Between Unix and Linux

Before we look at the differences between Unix and Linux, we need to examine both individually.

Linux is a free, open source kernel/kernel.Unix is an entire operating system sold by various companies in various versions and is usually supplied with its own hardware. Linux and Unix are not exactly the same, despite their similarities.

Differences Between Unix and Linux

Many users and enthusiasts think Linux and Unix are synonymous, but this is not quite true. Unix and Unix-like operating systems are a family of computer operating systems. Linux is just a kernel and the most popular variant and has a number of different distributions.

There are differences between Linux and Unix that can be examined.Architecture, security, price, text mode interface, deployments, default user interface and source mode are the main features that are not the same.First, let's learn more about both and review the dates of creation.

Origin and History of Unix

Unix was developed by Digital Equipment Corporation using the assembly programming language and a DEC PDP/7 computer, and in fact, this operating system, an informal project of Bell Labs, which was then owned by AT&T, was quickly moved to a PDP/11/20 computer and then distributed to other Bell Lab computers.

PDP 7 Computer

A rewrite based on the C programming language led to the birth of the fourth version of Unix in 1973. This was a big change, as the features and compilers of the C programming language made the Unix port relatively simpler in new computer architectures. In this way, the foundations of unix and C programming languages used today have been relatively laid.

In 1973, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie presented a paper about Unix at a conference.As a result, Bell Labs received a lot of demand for Unix.However, since the sale of operating systems was beyond AT&T's permitted operating range, the company could not consider Unix a commercial product.This led to unix being published as a source code and under certification.Unix did not have technical support at the time (as it is today) and therefore its errors were not fixed.

In 1975, Ken Thompson had the opportunity to study at the Bell Laboratories at the University of California, Berkeley.Along with several graduate students, he began to develop local versions of Unix.The University of California's efforts led to the release of the first version of Berkeley Software Distribution (a variant of the Unix operating system).This published package included Unix-related programs and system changes.This version was not actually a separate operating system, but users could add it to a Linux version.

Origin and History of Linux

The purpose of designing this operating system was to copy unix's functions without using any source code.Stallman called the operating system GNU and in 1983 founded the GNU Project to develop the software.In 1985, he founded the Free Software Foundation to promote, finance and support the GNU Project.

In 1987, Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum released the minix or mini-Unix.This operating system was actually a tool to teach students about operating system design.MINIX was a Unix-like operating system (in terms of performance), but it had limitations, including the file system.After all, the source code of this software had to be short enough to be taught in a semester, so some performances had to be sacrificed.

To better understand the internal affairs of the Intel 80386 microprocessor, a computer science student named Linus Torvalds wrote several simple task-switching codes as a learning exercise.In the end, this code became the first Linux kernel.Torvalds was familiar with MINIX.In fact, he developed the first core on MINIX using Stallman's GCC compiler.

Torvalds decided to design an operating system that can overcome the limitations of MINIX training.In 1991, he shared his famous description in the MINIX group (on the Usenet computer network) and asked other users to comment on his project.

Linux wasn't really a Unix simulation.Otherwise, the name should have remained the same as Unix.In fact, Linux is similar to Unix.The term clone actually means that small parts of the file are placed in the cell-by-cell copy.Linux has been redesigned to look like Unix and, of course, meet the same needs.This operating system is less simulation and a more powerful copy than other improvements.

Will Linux or Unix Be Developed?

A Linux version is actually a collection of different components that come together from different locations.The Linux kernel, a set of GNU core tools, and user applications (those that work separately from the operating system kernel) come together to create a lasting experience.Naturally, someone needs to take on the responsibility of integrating, maintaining and managing these things, just as they need to develop cores, applications and basic tools.In addition to the virtual and physical communities of each version, Linux developers should play a role in the birth of different versions of Linux, and in this context, their role is as important as that of the core developers.

Linux is the result of voluntary contributions; Non-paid include organisations such as Canonical and Red Hat, as are industry-backed organisations.Each commercial version of Unix is designed and created as a compatible product by internal or external (controlled) developers.Each version usually has its own core and is custom-made for specific hardware platforms.

Free and open source BSD Unix variants such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD and DragonBSD use a combination of old and new BSD codes.Today, such versions are supported by various communities and managed like Linux distributions.

In general, Linux is not subject to single Unix Specification or POSIX.This operating system tries to please both sides without enslavement.There are only one or two exceptions.One of them is the Chinese Linux Inspur K-UX, which is under the POSIX standard.

One of the differences between Linux and Unix is compatibility.A real Unix (such as commercial options), compatible operating system.Some BSD variants, including all macOS versions (except one), are subject to the POSIX standard.Distributions such as AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris are trademarks of all related entities.

Unix Limitations

And here, let's review the main limitations of Unix to help you make better comparisons:

1- Negative and contradictory user interface.

2- Designed for slow computer systems, so you can't expect fast performance.

3- Unix shell interface can destroy files with a single error.

4- There is no mismatch between different versions of Unix on different systems because they behave like completely different operating systems.

5- It does not support systems with real-time response time because it does not provide reliable response time for hardware outages.

Linux Limitations

In this section, let's review the main limitations of Linux:

1- There is no standard version or distribution for Linux.

2- Linux does not have standard support for hardware drivers that can cause system-wide failures.

3- Many commonly used software programs are compatible with Windows, and only some of these programs, such as Microsoft Office, can be run with emulators, or you can use alternative applications for free.

4- Linux is more suitable for enterprise users and may be difficult for home users to get used to, but it can be easier to use with different distributions such as Ubuntu.

Differences Between Unix and Linux

In this section, we will explain the differences between Linux and Unix so that you can better understand these two operating systems:

1. Definition


It is an open source operating system that is offered free of charge to everyone.


This operating system is only available with copyrights.

2. Examples


Various distributions e.g. Ubuntu, Redhat and Fedora


IBM AIX, HP-UX, Sun Solaris, AIS, BSD

3. Users


Today it has many fans and users, and anyone can use Linux, whether they are a home user, programmer or student.


It is primarily made for use on servers, workstations and supercomputers.

4. Application


It's used everywhere from servers to personal computers, smartphones to tablets, mainstream memory and supercomputers.


On servers, supercomputers and personal computers or personal computers.

5. Cost


Downloading and distributing distributions is free, and even commercial versions of Linux are cheaper.


Unix copyright vendors sell their related Unix operating systems at different prices.

6. Development


Because it's open source, developers from all over the world collaborate and share their code.


Unix, AT&T Labs, various commercial vendors and nonprofits have been developed.

BC Manufacturer


The Linux kernel was developed by the Developers Association from all over the world.Linux founder Linus Torvalds also controls this.


Unix has three deployments: IBM AIX, HP-UX, and Sun Solaris.Apple also uses Unix to create OSX.

8. GUI or Graphical User Interface


Linux can be used with terminal commands, but some Linux distributions also provide GUI's, Gnome and KDE are the most popular GUI's.


It uses it to work on commands, but later developed desktop environments such as Gnome.

9. Connector


The default interface is BASH (Bourne Again Shell), but some Linux distributions have developed their own interfaces.


He's using SH (Bourne SHell) or other GUI's.

10. File system


Linux supports more file systems than Unix, such as xfs, nfs, ext 1 to ext 4, ufs, devpts, and NTFS.


It supports fewer file systems than Linux such as zfs, hfx, GPS, xfs and vxfs.

11. Encoding


Linux is similar to Unix, acts like Unix but has no code.


Unix encoding is completely different from the one developed at AT&T Labs.

12. Operating system


Linux is just a kernel.


Unix is a complete operating system package.

13. Security


It provides a high level of security and to date 60 to 100 viruses have been listed for this.


Unix is also very safe and to date 85 to 120 viruses have been listed.

14. Error detection and resolution


Due to the open source nature of Linux, developers from all over the world work on it when a user posts a post about seeing any type of error.Thus, this is the fastest solution.


Users need to wait longer to resolve the issue.

15. Architecture


Originally developed for Intel's x86 processors.It is now possible to use Linux on more than 20 different processors, including arm type.


It is currently developed for PA-RISC and Itanium processors.

16. Portability


Linux is portable and can be booted via USB.


Unix is not portable.