# Electrical Energy and Power

Electric Power provides the power needed to produce work or action within an electrical circuit and is supplied in jul/sec.

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**Electric Energy**is the ability of an electrical circuit to create an action and produce work.This action can be in many formats such as thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical, electrical, etc. *Electrical energy* can be generated from both batteries, generators, dynamo, photovoltaics, etc., or fuel cells, batteries, capacitors or magnetic fields for future use, etc. Thus, electrical energy can be created or stored.

We remember from our school science classes that the "*Energy Conservation Act*" states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted.But for energy to do any useful work, it needs to be transformed from one form to another.For example, an engine converts electrical energy into mechanical or kinetic (rotation) energy, while a generator converts kinetic energy back into electrical energy to power a circuit.

In other words, electrical machines do business, converting or changing energy from one form to another.Another example is a lamp, bulb or LED (light-emitting diode) that converts electrical energy into light energy and heat (thermal) energy.Then electrical energy is versatile, since it can be easily converted into many other different forms of energy.

In order for electrical energy to move electrons and create a current flow around a circuit, work must be done, that is, electrons must move a certain distance along a wire or conductor.The work is stored as energy in the electron flow.Therefore, "Business" is the name we give to the energy process.

Therefore, we can say that *Business* and *Energy is*effectively the same, as can be described as the "ability to do business".Keep in mind that the work done or the energy transferred is applied equally to a mechanical system or thermal system as well as to an electrical system.This is due to the interchangeable mechanical, thermal and electrical energies.

## Electric Energy: Volt

As we now know, the standard unit used for energy (and business) is **Joule,** but energy is the capacity to do business.Joule energy is defined as energy spent by an amperage at a volt and moving in a second.Electric current is caused by the movement of the electric charge (electrons) around a circuit, but to move the load from one node to another, there must be a force that will create the work to move the load.

We tend to think that voltage (V) exists between two different terminals, points or nodes within a circuit or battery source.But voltage is important because it provides the work needed to move the load forward or backward from one point to another.The voltage or potential difference between the two terminals or points is defined as having a volt value when a joule of energy is used to move a coulomb electric charge between these two terminals.

In other words, the *voltage* difference between two points or terminals is the necessary work in *Joule* to move a *Coulomb* load from A to B. Therefore, the voltage can be expressed as follows:

Where: voltage is in Volts, J is business or energy in Joule, and C is load in Coulomb.Thus, if J = 1 joule is C = 1 coulomb, V will equal 1 volt.

### Electric Energy Question Sample 1

What is the terminal voltage of a battery that consumes 135 jul of energy to move a load of 15 coulomb around an electrical circuit?

Then in this example we can see that the coulomb of each load has 9 jul of energy.

## Electric Power: Amperage

We found that the unit of the electric charge is *Coulomb,* and the flow of the electrical charge around a circuit is used to represent a current flow.However, since a coulomb symbol is the letter " C ", this can also be confused with the symbol Capacitance, which is the letter " C ".

To avoid this confusion, the common symbol used for electrical charge is the capital letter " Q " or "q " which basically means quantity.Thus Q = 1 coulomb load or Q = 1C.Note that the Q load can be positive, +Q or negative, -Q, that is, excess of electrons or holes.

The charge flow in the form of electrons around a closed circuit is called *an electric current.*However, the use of the phrase "load flow" refers to movement, so the load must move to produce an electric current.This then leads to the question of what moves the load, and this is done from above by our old friend Voltage.

Thus, the voltage or potential difference between the two points provides the electrical energy necessary to move the load around a circuit in the form of an electric current.Therefore, the work done to carry the load is provided by a potential difference, and if there is no potential differencebetween the two points, there is no load movement and therefore there is no current flow.Without any flow or movement, the actual load is called static electricity.

If the movement of the load is called electric current, we can accurately say that the current is the speed (or flow rate) of the charge, but how much load represents a current.If we select any point in a circuit and measure the exact amount of load that passes through this point in exactly one second, this will give us the power of the electric current in *Amperage* (A).

Thus, an amperage current equals a coulomb load that passes from a certain point per unit per second, and the greater the load per second that passes through this point, the greater the current.Then we can define an amperage (A) electric current equal to a coulomb charge per second.So 1A = 1C/s

Where: Q is load (in coulomb) and t is the time interval (in seconds) during which the load moves.In other words, the electric current has both a magnitude (amount of load) and a certain aspect associated with it.

Note that the commonly used symbol for electric current is the capital letter " I " or "i " small " which both represent density.This is the density or concentration of the charge that produces the flow of electrons.For a fixed DC current, uppercase " I " is usually used, while lowercase " i " is usually used for an AC current that changes over time. The i _{(t)} symbol refers to the instantaneous current value of time at that exact moment.

It is sometimes easier to remember this relationship using an image.Where Q, I, and t are three amounts of a triangle represent the actual position of each quantity in the current formula.

### Ampere

The displacement of the above standard formula gives us the following combinations of the same equation:

### Electric Energy Question Sample 2

1. If 900 kulomb load passes through a certain point in 3 minutes, how much current passes through this circuit?

2. An electric current of 3 amps passes through a resistance.How many coulomb loads will pass through the resistance in 90 seconds.

## Electric Energy: Watt

**Electric Power** is the product of two quantities: *Voltage* and *Current,* and therefore can be defined as the ratio of work done when energy is spent.We have previously said that voltage provides the necessary work in Joule to move a Coulomb load from A to B, and that the current is the speed (or flow rate) of the load.So how do these two definitions connect?

If the voltage is equal to (V) Joule per Coulomb ( V = J/C ) and Amperage (I) per second load ( *coulomb* ) ( A = Q/t ), we can define the electrical power (P) as a total. This is due to the fact that the electric power can also be equal to voltage times amps, that is: P = V*I .

### Watt

So we can see that electrical power is also the rate of work done in a second.That is, joule energy is expended every second.Since electrical power is measured in Watts (W), therefore it must also be measured in *Joule/ Seconds.*So we can say correctly: 1 watt = 1 joule per second (J/s).

### Electrical power

1 watt (W) = 1 joule/second (J/s)

Therefore, if it is 1 watt = 1 joule per second, then the following conclusion comes to the following conclusion: 1 Joule energy = 1 watt per unit of time, that is: Work equals power multiplied time, (V*I*t joule).Thus, electrical energy (work done) is obtained by multiplying the power (in the form of current) by multiplying it by the time in seconds in which it flows.Thus, electrical energy units depend on the units used for electrical power and time.In other words, if we measure electrical power in kilowatts (kW) and time in hours (h), the electrical energy consumed is equal to kilowatt*hour (Wh) or simply **kilowatt-hour** (kWh).

### Electric Energy Question Sample 3

How many joules of electrical energy is used by the lamp if a 100 Watt bulb lights up for just an hour?

When treating Joule as an electrical energy unit, keep in mind that it is more convenient to present it as a kilo-joule.Therefore, the answer can be given as follows: 360kJ.

Since a *joule* is a small amount in its own right, kilojoule (kJ), thousands of joule, megajoule (MJ), millions of joule and even gigajoule (GJ), thousands of million joule, all practical units. electrical energy.Thus, a unit of electricity equivalent to one kilowatt hour (kWh) can be defined as 3.6 megajoule (MJ).

Similarly, since Watts are a very small amount of electrical power, kilowatts (1 kW = 1,000 watts) and megawatts (1 MW = 1 million watts) are widely used to determine the power output of electrical equipment and devices.Thus, we can see that kilowatt (or megawatt) is an electrical power unit, while a kilowatt hour is an electrical energy unit.