What are Energy Types?

In this series, we will examine the concepts of energy and energy types, resources, energy types; We'll classify them as two groups, and then we'll call them basic units.

What is Energy?

Although defining energy precisely is one of the most difficult things in physics, in its simplest definition, energy is what makes it possible to happen to everything that is happening around us. If cars are moving today, your house is warming up, factories can produce, flowers bloom and the sun can warm you up, it's because of energy. More technically, energy is the name given to the ability of substances to do business. Substances can only change their current physical condition using energy. Observable motion energy is called kinetic energy. There is also energy stored in the system and ready to be used even though it is immobile. This is called potential energy. For example, a ball that stands at the top of the ladder without moving has a potential energy because when the obstacle in front of it is removed, it can move down with gravity without doing anything else; When it starts to go down the stairs and gains speed, its potential energy turns into kinetic energy.

Mechanical Energy

It is the name given to the total energy of mechanical systems that can accommodate both potential and kinetic energies.

Electric Energy

Electric energy, which is one of the most frequent types of energy we interact with in our lives; it is a type of energy generated by the movement of free electrons in metals under the electrical potential difference. Electrical energy, like many different types of energy, is often used to produce another type of energy.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy,defined by the more famous E=mc² formula, is the type of energy obtained from the mass difference in the reaction of atomic nuclei. The lost mass completely turns into energy. Nuclear energy can be obtained by breaking down atoms or by combining them, and accordingly, they are divided into fission and fusion energy.

Chemical Energy

The energy generated by chemical reactions of different substances is called chemical energy. Batteries or gas oil used for heat/light are examples that can be given to the use of chemical energy.

Heat Energy

It is the name given to the energy transferred to increase the temperature of a substance. It occurs by heat transfer from a substance where the temperature is higher to the substance where the temperature is lower. It can be obtained by burning various fuels.

Light Energy

As with other types of energy, it is energy that occurs when a type of energy turns into light and can be detected by light-sensitive sources (such as the human eye). Electrical energy can be converted from the bulb, from living things such as fireflies thanks to chemical energy, or from substances such as wood and coal, which provide light when lit using heat.

Magnetic Energy

It is the type of energy caused by magnetic force released by the movement of electrons. The magnets we use in our daily lives, as well as the earth's own magnetic energy, are one of the best examples of this species. The thrust and tensile force of the magnets is due to the fact that the electrons in the atoms that make up the magnet are arranged to rotate in the same direction. Some metals are affected by magnets due to their properties and can be magnetized.

Sound Energy

Sound transmitted by vibration in a material environment is also an energy and can be converted into various tasks when used correctly. For example, ultrasonography devices used in medicine can perform various procedures with the help of high frequency sound waves. Sound energy is the reason opera singers (though not very often) can only break glasses with their voices, or the windows in the vicinity are broken after an explosion that causes violent sound. Today, even electricity generation with sound waves has been achieved.

What are Energy Units?

As well as different types of energy, the units used to measure energy are quite diverse. The common measurement units of energy, which are usually measured in different ways according to where they are used, are as follows:

Newton Meter

Named after renowned scientist Isaac Newton,newton is used to measure the amount of force that must be applied to increase the speed of the object with a mass of 1 kg every second by one meter. The unit of measure of the energy transferred to the object through this force is newton meter. One newton meter equals one joule.

Joule

The unit of measure in the International Unit System, named after England's James Prescott Joule, is used to describe the energity transmitted by 1 newton force for 1 meter to an object, in its most basic definition. Many different energy units can be converted into joule and calculated.

Calorie

The calories used to measure heat energy represent the amount of energy required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 °C.

Watt Clock

Named after steam engine inventor James Watt, watt is a power unit that measures the energy conversion rate. Power is the amount of energy spent in unit time and is defined as joule divided by seconds. The kilowatt hour, which is often used for electrical energy consumption, describes the energy spent in 1 hour by a device with a power of 1,000 watts.

Electronvolt

It is the amount of kinetic energy that an electron gains by traveling with the awareness of one volt of electrostatic potential EEgerilim, which is mainly used in particle physics.

Definition and Classification of Energy Sources

In simple terms, energy in a physical sense means moving power. It is also possible to think about this in terms of doing business. Therefore, each production activity requires a certain energy expenditure. In this, human labor can be used as well as tools and equipment. Already, the type of power supply that has been most important for centuries has been man's own power. Today, this power plays a role in the production of services, ideas and ideas rather than the production of goods. Of course, manpower (labor force) is again of great importance in the modern industrial sector. However, one of the most typical characteristics of this form of production is that it consumes a high amount of energy. The energy needed is provided from some natural sources. Energy is simply the ability to do business. Like lengths, scalar is greatness. In total, there are 8 main types of energy. These are potential, kinetics, heat, light, electricity, chemical, nuclear and sound energy. What we must not forget is that no energy is lost. There's been another type of energy, so we're going to study these energies in two groups.

Renewable Energy Sources

It is defined by the ability to renew itself equally to the energy received from the energy source or faster than the rate at which the source is depleted. For example, a technology powered by energy from the sun consumes this energy, but the energy consumed remains very small compared to the total solar energy. The most common form of renewable energy comes from the sun. Some forms store solar energy and wind power.

Solar Energy

It is a renewable energy source from the sun with a constant intensity and a value of 1370 W/m2 outside the Earth's atmosphere, ranging from 0-1100 W/m2 on the surface of the earth. It can be used in a controlled manner from heating to cooling and electricity generation. The annual sunbathing period of our country is on average 2640 hours. The maximum sunbathing time was 362 hours in July and the minimum sunbathing time was 98 hours in December. The region richest in terms of sunbathing time is southeast Anatolia region, followed by Mediterranean, Aegean, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Marmara and Black Sea regions respectively.Solar energy is used today: in residential and workplaces, agricultural technology, industry, transportation vehicles, communication tools, signaling and automation, electricity generation. energy sources

Wind Energy

It can be defined as an indirect, i.e. converted solar energy. The energy to be obtained from the wind depends entirely on the speed of the wind and the time of blowing. Although it is not the whole of our country, it has places that are considered rich in wind energy. Wind energy is not a free energy, even if nature is the source. Even if wind, which is the main raw material of this energy, is not taken with money, a cost is required to keep the energy carried by the wind and convert it into energy. The cost in the USA is 750 USD/kW and in Europe it can be 1400 USD /kW. It must be $1000/kW to be economical. Wind turbulence installed in the seas costs twice as much as onshore ones. With the developing technology, these figures are expected to be reduced much lower in the near future. energy sources

Hydraulic (hydroelectric) Energy

It can be defined as the development and use of water resources, including energy purposes. In other words, it is an energy provided by converting the potential energy of water into kinetic energy. energy sources

Geothermal Energy

It is defined as hot water, steam and gases formed by heat accumulated at various depths of the earth's crust, whose temperatures are above atmospheric temperature. Our country ranks seventh in the world in terms of geothermal resources. There are around 140 sources with a surface temperature above 40 degrees. While 136 of these resources are suitable for central heating, greenhouse and residential heating and industrial use, it has been determined that it is possible to obtain electrical energy technically and economically from only 4. The oil equivalent of evaluating all our resources is calculated to be $9 billion/year. energy sources

Biomass energy

It is possible to consider it in two groups, classical and modern. The first is that you can't it consists of firewood obtained from conventional forests and plant and animal waste (such as dung) used as fuel. The second is modern biomass energy; energy forestry and forest-tree industry wastes are listed as plant wastes in agriculture, urban wastes, industrial wastes based on agriculture. Today, a type of agriculture called energy agriculture has been formed. In this type of agriculture, plants called C4 (sugar cane, corn, sweet millet,…….vb.) are grown. These plants are drought-based plants that use water and carbon dioxide efficiently. energy sources

Wave Energy

Wave energy is the type of energy obtained from the fluctuation movement in the seas and the pressure generated by the waves. Natural and sustainable energy production is provided from wave energy with the help of wave generators.

Tidal Energy

In addition, piezoelectric energy can be seen among renewable energy sources, although it does not yet produce enough energy.Piezoelectric energy converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Hydrogen Energy

Hydrogen, which is abundant in compounds in nature, is not a natural source of energy as it is not freely available. However, hydrogen can be produced from different raw materials with primary energy sources and conversion processes are used in its production. Therefore, it is an energy carrier developed by technology almost a century after electricity and interpreted as an alternative source of the future. Since hydrogen does not contain carbon, it does not create environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. It will be able to respond to the needs of various areas from heating to electricity generation. Since it will be in gas and liquid form, it can be carried over long distances and there will be no loss of transmission.Since 2010, hydrogen is intended to be used for commercial purposes. It is expected to be between 1.5 -5.5 more expensive than gasoline in the first years after all costs are taken into account. energy sources However, considering its environmental contributions in the coming years, it is calculated that this cost will be reduced much lower. Almost all energy sources, including renewable energy sources, are technologically advanced. Energy will continue to be a fundamental problem for humanity in the future as it has been to this day. However, it is not the first time that It is also unlikely for humanity to have renewable energy sources that provide more energy in the coming years than they do today.However, the contributions of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption by 2020 unfortunately seem far from meeting the energy figures needed by humanity. The technical levels that mankind has today show that in 2020, a maximum of 12% of our total energy needs can be met from alternative energy sources.

Non-renewable Energy Sources

Scientifically, although there is no energy source called non-renewable in the ranking of energy sources, energy sources that take a very long time to form are called non-renewable energy. Although most of these resources are fossil fuels and nuclear energy, the efficiency and over-energy of energy, especially caused by the burning of fossil fuels, has a lot of damage to the natural environment and ecology. Likewise, due to the uncontrolled use of nuclear energy, environmental and living damages are caused, which are absolutely irreversible and will last for many years.

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are most commonly used to produce electrical energy in thermal power plants. The substances we use in daily life such as gasoline, diesel, LPG, plastic, naphthalene, paint, teflon are oil-derived. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas formed over thousands of years are rapidly decreasing with the development of humanity, while their waste leads to air water and soil pollution. Carbon burning reactions in fossil fuels cause the accumulation of CO2 and CO compounds in the atmosphere. The accumulation of these gases in the air is quite dangerous in terms of causing greenhouse effect and global warming. energy sources

Nuclear Energy

Uranium is based on the extraction of energy that holds protons and neutrons in the nuclei of radioactive elements such as plutonium. 20% of the world's electricity is generated in nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants are found in many parts of the world and cause the atmosphere to become polluted. In nuclear power plants, electricity is cheap, but the cost of the plant is quite expensive, and there are dangers such as emissions. energy sources