What is Fiber Optics?

Fiber optics defines the environment and technology associated with the transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic yarn or fiber.

What is Fiber Optics?

Fiber optics are used for long-distance and high-performance data networks. The word fiber optics has started to be heard more with the internet. These cables are a stream of optical glass thinner than human hair that carries digital information over long distances. These cables are thin, long wires of very pure glass in the diameter of a human hair. These are arranged in bundles called optical cables and are used for the transmission of light signals over long distances. Communication systems where light is used as an information carrier have been of great interest recently. Today's leading various and development laboratories conduct research on systems that use glass or plastic fiber cables to "contain" a wave of light and send it from a source to a destination.

Fiber Optic Cable Structure

A single cable consists of these parts. It can consist of a number of glass fibers ranging from one or more. Glass fiber is another layer of glass surrounding the core, called coating. A layer known as a buffer tube protects the coating, and a jacket layer acts as the last protective layer for wire one by one.

  • Core: It is the thin glass center of the fiber that light travels through.
  • Coating: It is an external optical material that surrounds the core and reflects light back to the core.
  • Buffer Coating: It is a plastic coating that protects fiber from damage and moisture.

Fiber Optic Types

Single Mode Fiber

It has small cores. It is used for longer distances due to the smaller diameter of the glass fiber core (approximately 3.5 x 10-4 cm or 9 micron diameter) and transmits infrared laser light (wavelength = 1,300 to 1,550 nanometers). Single mode fiber has high bandwidth. The light source used for single mode fiber is typically a laser. Single mode fiber prices are more expensive. Precise calculations are required to produce laser light in a smaller opening.

Multi-Mode Fiber

It has a larger core. Multi-mode fiber is used for shorter distances. Because the larger kernel span allows light signals to tab and reflect more along the way. The larger diameter allows multiple light beats to be sent from the cable at once, which allows for further data transmission (approximately 2.5 x 10-3 cm or 62.5 microns in diameter) and infrared light (LED) through light-emitting diodes (LED = 1,300 nm for 850). Multi-mode fiber optics use an LED to generate light pulses. Some of the optical fibers can be manufactured from plastic material. These fibers (0.04 inches or 1 mm diameter) have a large core. They transmit visible red light (wavelength = 650 nm) through LEDs.

How Does Fiber Optic Work?

These glass cables transmit data in the form of light particles or photons that pass through the nucleus. The glass fiber core and each coating have a separate refractive index that bends the incoming light at a certain angle. When light signals are sent from these cables, they enter a process called total internal reflection with a series of zig-zag splashes reflecting the core and coating. Since the coating does not absorb any light from the core, the light wave can travel very large distances. Light signals do not move at the speed of light due to dense glass layers. The light signal is often lost in fiber due to imper pure substances in the glass. It travels about 30% slower than the speed of light. Optical transmission travels long distances to renew or increase the signal as long as it travels, sometimes by processing the optical signal to the electrical signal, by processing the electrical signal and by retransmissioning the optical signal. Optical cables move towards supporting signals up to 10 Gbps. Typically, the more bandwidth capacity of a cable, the more expensive it becomes.

Fiber Optic Uses

This technology is also used in telecommunications services such as the Internet, television and telephones. For example, companies such as Verizon and Google use these cables on Verizon FIOS and Google Fiber internet services and provide users with gigabit internet speeds. Fiber optics are also used in the fields of medical imaging and mechanical engineering. Optical cables are used because they have a number of advantages over copper cables such as higher bandwidth and transmission speeds.

Plastic Fiber and Glass Fiber Comparison Table