What is Processor (CPU)?

Processors, called central processing units and with a terminological acronym CPU, were home to thousands of transistors when they first came into our lives in the 1970s, and now millions of transistors are combined on a silicon chip. Processors capable of arithmetic and logical processing can be expressed as the part of computers that processes data and performs software commands. After the introduction of the first microprocessor Intel 4004 in 1970 and the Intel 8080, a large-scale microprocessor, in 1974, the development to date led to the use of the term MIB instead of microprocessors. While the speed units of the processors, which vary depending on the architecture and production technology used, are expressed as HZ, MHZ and GHZ, we see processors that are usually the speed unit GHz today with the developing technology. The advantages of producing MIBs on a single mold in this field have helped to bring the clock speeds around 10 MHz to GHz levels today. CPUs consist of two basic units, called ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) and CU (Control Unit).

ALU ;

  • It is responsible for performing all logical and arithmetic operations.
  • They have tasks such as aggregation, subtraction, number, letter, comparison between special characters, determining whether they are equal in comparison operations, determining whether they are smaller or larger, and so on.

CU ;

  • Regulates the flow of electrical signals and processes within the computer.
  • Interprets commands and ensures that they are fulfilled.
  • Helps load data and instructions contained in secondary memory into master memory.
  • Allows the command to proceed with regular steps.
  • The central processor's communication with memory and input and output units is controlled by external control signals.

CPU Operating Principle

Processors capable of arithmetic and logical processing work with a low-level coding system of 0s and 1s, called machine languages. That is, it uses 2-in-1 systems (10010011) to process. It acts by combining 2 values in memory to create images on the screen. It passes through millions of transistors and converts signals to the processor into basic mathematical processes, such as 4 processes, for the fulfillment of commands. These operations are performed at ALU. Various bus and control components are included in the processor.

How to Produce Processor (CPU)?

For your knowledge of processor production phases, we share with you the High-K processor production phases shared by Intel in recent years; The most commonly found element in the earth's crust after oxygen is silicon. Just because it's so numerous doesn't mean it's going to come up everywhere in pure form. It is necessary to first make the silicone contained in the form of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in sand grains pure. After this procedure is carried out, silicone is turned into ingots weighing 100 kg.These ingots are cut into 1 mm thick slices. These slices are called "wafer" or chip plate. These plates need to be thoroughly polished. Cut and polished plates are covered with a light-resistant layer. This layer has a specific pattern. Thus, when the plate is bombarded with ions, a structure appears according to this pattern. Plates covered with a light-sensitive layer are then exposed to high-powered ion rays. This process changes the conductivity characteristics of the plate. According to the pattern of the light-resistant material, some areas on the plate are conductive and some places are insulating. After this process, the light-resistant layer is removed. In the next stage, a substance is used that dissolves the part that is not affected by ultraviolet light and the substances contained in the production architecture that are no longer necessary. After the pattern is created, the transistors are actually completed. However, there is no link yet between the millions of transistors on the plate. To create it, the entire plate is first covered with an insulating material. Three holes are drilled on the insulation material. After that, the plate is immersed in a solution of copper sulfate, and through electrolysis the entire plate is coated with copper. The copper coating is then cleaned until the insulation material reappears. Thus, three holes appear, which are drilled and then covered with copper inside. These copper parts form the junction points of the connections between transistors.

The most complex phase of processor production!

Creating connections between transistors is the most complex and important phase of processor production. Very complex connections are created between transistors, which directly affect the performance of the processor. In the next generation of processors, these connections go up to 30 layers on a transistor. If you open the inside of the processor and look through a microscope, you can see intertwined paths instead of a flat surface. The first basic quality tests are also carried out after this stage. After all these processes, the chips are now ready. The chipsets are cut one by one, becoming chips inside the processors that we use on the computer. Individual cut chips are then glued onto a special layer (PCB). A metal plate is placed on it, which allows the heat to be transmitted when it is also worked. Processors that come to the shapes that we are now used to seeing are tested on a special device. This device detects the frequency and thermal properties of processors. The slightest occurring during the production stages affects the power of the processor. Therefore, the characteristics of each processor that comes out of the same plate are not the same. Processors are divided into classes (Core i7, Core i5, etc.) after their frequencies and other characteristics are determined.

So which processor?

In today's market, a limited number of companies produce processors. Intel, the most popular of these companies, has gained worldwide acclaim with its Pentium and Celeron model processors. Pentium model processors have models named Pentium 1, 2, 3 and 4. AMD, a strong competitor of Intel, has pushed Intel hard with processors such as Duron and Athlon. You may also hear other brand and model processors on the market. Cyrix processors from Via, for example, are not very popular, although they are very cheap. The cause is slow operating frequencies and incompatibility problems. In addition, you should pay close attention to the issue of compliance when buying processors. The processor and motherboard you receive may not be compatible.

X86 processors from yesterday to today

8086/8088

Intel launched its 16-bit 8086 processor in 1978. The first processor with high-level programming languages and more efficient operating systems, 8086 formed the basis of IBM-compliant systems. With an 8088 processor followed, IBM launched its first personal computer (PC). This first PC had a 16K memory, a screen without graphics features, and a tape drive. This first processor supported 8 bits as an external bus and was running at a clock speed of 4.77 MHz.

80286

Shortly afterwards, Intel upgraded its PC performance to a new level by removing its 80286 processor. The 80286 processor was able to use the 16-bit bus both internally and externally. This caused it to get much more attention than its predecessors, and now more powerful software is being produced for PCs.

80386

Intel's 80386 processor, a generation later processor, has brought major changes to the PC world. The biggest feature of this processor, which is the SX and DX models, was that it was a 32-bit processor. Doubling the bus in the 286s increased graphics operations on PCs. In addition, increasing the clock speed from 16 MHz to 33 and 40 MHz has accelerated the process even further.

i486

Intel introduced the i486 CPU in April 1989. The i486 processor is an integrated chip. This chip combines four different groups of functions (the actual CPU, a math coprocessor, a cache controller, and one public cache on the DX/DX2 models and two discrete 8K caches on DX4 models) into one component. The i486 uses a 32-bit structure, both internally and externally. It also reached 100 MHz in the speed of the clock.

Pentium

At a time when i486 CPUs were rapidly expanding, Intel released its new family of processors, codenamed P5, as Pentium. The external bus is a 64-bit internal bus, while the 256-bit processor has two discrete 8K caches. Unlike the 486s, the pentium processor has two integer processors. The floating point processor has also been well developed. Branch Protection technology is also used, which is not available on 486 processors. This technology is based on the processing of code sets that are supposed to branch out the jump commands that will be operated during the program by copying them to a faster-accessed environment. This provides a 25% performance boost. Pentium processors are manufactured with 0.28 micron BICMOS and CMOS technology. They are produced at 60 MHz, 75 MHz, 90 MHz, 100 MHz, 120 MHz, 133 MHz, 166 MHz, 200 MHz and 233 MHz clock speeds.

Pentium Pro

These processors have approximately twice the processing power of pentium CPUs and use between 5.5 and 6.1 million transistors. Powered by a supply voltage of +2.9V, this processor is built at clock speeds of 166 MHz, 200 MHz, 233 MHz and 266 MHz. This processor is mostly designed for server computers and supports all software written for processors on the x86 base. Pentium Pro primarily needs 32-bit programs. Therefore, the actual 32-bit operating system, such as Windows NT, must be used for the processor to function at full performance.

  • MMX Technology
  • Pentium II
  • Celeron
  • Pentium III