What is a Seat Belt?

Seat Belt is the most important priority that we use and must use every time we get into cars where we spend long periods of our lives. Without feeling any resistance, we can adjust it to our body and attach it to the belt buckle. But when we pull the seatbelt in a sudden move, the belt locks, preventing it from moving.

Seat Belt Operating Principle

All of the frequently used modern 3-point arches are mechanical, i.e. analogue systems. The only digital system in addition to belt buckles is; they are sensorsthat establish the connection between the road computer and the belt, that is, control the installation of the belts while the vehicle is on the move and alert passengers. The only thing that causes the belt to lock in sudden movements is a passive weight-lock located inside the belt mechanism. safety belt There is a small passive lock mechanism inside the gear that controls the amount of fastening and release of the seatbelt. When the belt is pulled too violently or at the time of an accident, a metal ball, which is usually part of this locking mechanism, pops forward. During this jump movement, the lock inside the mechanism is also pushed upwards and is attached to the gear that controls the back release of the belt. At this point, the belt cannot be locked and oscillated, so that the passenger is saved from jumping forward. If the belt is slightly released back, the lock mechanism will get rid of the gear and return to its former position. Thus, the seatbelt can be partially opened or rewinded at a slow speed.

Why Seat Belts Are Required

The positive aspects of seat belts are seen in almost all types of accidents. However, the benefits of death and serious injury in crash/collision accidents are even more remarkable. Whether it's an item that's swayed by a impact or a human body, it's eventually stopped by an obstacle. Although the vehicle stops in the first ten seconds at the moment of impact, if the belt is not fastened, the items in the vehicle and the bodies of the persons in the vehicle will continue to move at the same speed until they are stopped by the steering wheel, control panel or windshield. safety belt However, a properly fitted seatbelt protects the human body by gradually reducing the concussion that occurs in the body due to the impact, directing the impact intensity that occurs at the moment of the accident to the strongest points in the body structure, ensuring that the impact effect does not gather and dissipate at one point in the body, preventing the jump from the seat at the moment of impact/impact, and preventing the head and spinal cord containing the most sensitive and important organs from hitting anywhere. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M70yoV2ZizY

Some Stunning Research Results on The Effects of Seat Belts: (trafik.gov.tr)

Three-point seatbelts reduce the risk of serious injury to car travelers by 45% and vans by 60%. In fatal accidents, 24.8% of those who used seatbelts survived the accident without any harm, compared to 6.3% of those who did not use seat belts. Advanced research has found that the use of seatbelts in the backseat prevents 2/3 of deaths and injuries in the backseat and 6% of front seat deaths. For all serious injuries, rear seat seat belts reduce the severity of the injury by 50%. TRL (UK Transport Research Laboratory) analyses found that nearly all front seat passengers wore seatbelts, while rear seat passengers who used seatbelts at a lower rate had a 2-fold higher risk of injury and a 7 times higher risk of being thrown. Rear seat passengers who are not wearing seatbelts are most exposed to head, face and neck injuries. The biggest cause of injury to rear seat passengers is ejected. Generally speaking, the death and injury rates in countries where belt use is mandatory are 40% lower than in countries where use is not mandatory. The use of belts was made mandatory in 1970 in Victoria, a state of Australia. Four years later, the 1974 statistics showed a 37% reduction in deaths, a 41% reduction in injuries and a 27% reduction in spinal cord injuries. In 1995, seat belts saved 9,797 lives, airbags 475 and child protection systems saved 279 lives in the United States. In Canada, since 1989, the belts have prevented 2,400 lives and 55,000 injuries and saved $3 million in social and health costs. In the same country, in 1995, in fatal accidents, those who did not use the protection system (seat belt, vehicle child seat, etc.) 25% of it was thrown out of the vehicle.

What is a Three-Point Belt?

The most widely used seat belt in almost every vehicle is the 3-point belt system. This belt is defined as 3 points in order to secure passengers in the event of an accident and impact and because it is fixed at three different points. It is located in the front and rear seats of the vehicle as the front seat belt and rear seat belt. Thanks to the gradual belt technique, it prevents the passenger from being thrown out of the vehicle during a hard hit. safety belt

Other Types of Seat Belts

In addition to the three-point seatbelt, 4-point belts, i.e. hanger seat belts, are used in high-speed sports vehicles, and an additional line extending from right to left parallel to the chest is added due to its structure, but in some accidents it has been proven that the passenger can slip through. Multi-point seatbelts are also available in 5s and 6s. These two examples are a system that is especially familiar with child safety and where there is no possibility of the passenger slipping through. safety belt

Seat Belt History

In the 1930s, many American physicians placed two-point (two-point attached to the vehicle) belt in their car and insisted that car manufacturers place them on new models. The 1953 Colorado State Medical Association issued a statement calling for two-point seat belts to be placed on all cars. The California Vehicle Act of 1955 required wearing a seatbelt to drive. 1956 Volvo launches its two-point cross-chest seat belt as an accessory. Chrysler has installed a two-point seatbelt in the front seats on some of its models for optional use. Ford has started two years of safety advertisements on seat belts. 1957 Volvo adds locks to its two-point cross seat belts. 1958 Nils Bohlin, an engineer at the Volvo Factory in Sweden, patents the system known as a three-point seatbelt. 1959 In Sweden, volvo presented its three-point belt as standard for the front seat. In New York, the cost of installing belts on new vehicles to be sold in the state was examined and rejected. 1961 SAE (Automobile Engineers Association) recommends that seat belts be standard in America. New York stipulated that the seatbelt lock be outside the seat area. The State of Wisconsin has required the use of seatbelts in the front seats. The Australian Standard Association has issued standards for "SeatBelts and Passive Inhibitors." 1962 Six U.S. States stipulate that there should be a belt in the front seat. Automakers have installed seat belts in the front seat as standard. In 1963 A.B.D., Volvo produced the three-point seatbelt as standard. In 1964, half the American state forced the use of belts in the front seat. Many car manufacturers in America have offered their seatbelts as standard in the front seats. South Australia and Victoria have forced newly produced vehicles to have seatbelts in the front seats. 1965 A.B.D. The Commerce Department has issued its first seatbelt standard. Swedish law of 1966 banned two-point chest seat belts and "Y" type three-point seat belts on the doorstep. 1967 American car manufacturers also put seatbelts in the rear seats. The UK has mandated the use of a three-point seatbelt in the front seats. Australia has issued a seatbelt standard. 1968 Volvo introduced emergency locks (ELRs) as standard for front seats in Sweden. 1969 In Sweden, it was mandatory to have a 3-point belt in the front seat. Volvo has introduced its 3-point belt as standard in the rear seat in all markets. Mercedes-Benz offered a 3-point seatbelt as standard in the back seat in all markets. In Spain, the front and back seats were forced to have belts. After 1965, Australia forced license plate areas to have seatbelts in the front seat. 1970 In Sweden, a seatbelt was forced in the backseat. Australia was forced to have a three-point seatbelt in the front and back seat at Victorya. 1972 NHTSA, (A.B.D. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) has set federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. In Australia and West Germany, seat belts were required to be in the front and back seats and their use was required. 1975 In Sweden, the use of seatbelts for those aged 15 and over was forced. 1977 A.B.D. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 222 for "Protecting Passengers on School Buses", enacted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, came into force. 1979 France makes the belt mandatory in the back seats. The 1980 Mercedes-Benz driver's side airbag began to produce knee support pads, and all 3-point seatbelts were stretched. After 01/1984, Austria made rear seat belts mandatory in vehicles manufactured. West Germany made rear seat belts mandatory in vehicles produced after 05/1979. Since then, 7 of Canada's 10 provinces have required drivers and passengers of moving vehicles to use their self-fitting belts. In 1985, Norway made rear seat belts mandatory in vehicles registered after 01/1984 New York made the use of belts mandatory in the rear and front seats (for 10 years and older in the rear seats). TURKEY: As of 18.06.1986, seat belt application has been launched "for the driver and passengers sitting next to him in all-terrain vehicles and minibuses that are treated as cars and registrations on intercity highways". In 1987, New York became the first state to make belts mandatory on buses used on New Jersey school buses in 1992. TURKEY: As of 01.01.1992, belts were obliged to be worn "for drivers of registered off-road vehicles such as cars and minibuses and passengers in the front seat, except for vehicle drivers who transport passengers by commercial cars and minibuses on urban roads". TURKEY: With the vehicles mentioned above and the vehicles produced in our country, those who are allowed to import from abroad have been given a 3-month period. This period ended on 11.01.1995. At the end of this period, the use of seatbelts in the back seat was introduced. 1996 The European Economic Commission issued 3 directives on the use of 3-point or at least 2-point arches in vans and vehicles under 3.5 tons. TURKEY: The use of belts in the back seats of minibuses produced after 01.01.1998, trucks, trucks, tow trucks and intercity buses was mandated by the regulation decision. In 1998, the National Highway Traffic Safety Agency (NHTSA) in the United States submitted a research project to Congress under the heading "School Bus Safety: Safe Journey for America's Children" to examine future systems to protect those traveling on school buses. In 1999, the states of Florida, Louisiana and California introduced laws requiring more advanced protection systems for travelers on large school buses. All states have announced they will wait until the completion of the project, which is being prepared by the National Highway Traffic Safety Agency (NHTSA) to decide which system to use. 2002 The National Highway Traffic Safety Agency (NHTSA) in the United States completed its research to Congress on systems for future use and to protect travelers on school buses.

Seat Belt Legislation in Turkey:

With Article 78 of our Highway Traffic Law No. 2918, it is mandatory for certain drivers and passengers to use protective equipment during the driving of vehicles. The regulations related to the subject are specified in the regulation. With the amendment made to the Highway Traffic Regulation dated 25.06.1998, changes were made to paragraphs b, c and d of paragraph 2. These are: (b) paragraph: "In the vehicles that are treated as cars in terms of automobiles and registrations, the driver and the front and rear seats, and in the minibuses, the passengers who sit next to the driver; in the seats next to the driver and driver in trucks, vans and tow trucks; in the front and front seats with gaps in the front and front, including the driver, except for the rear seats on intercity buses (class III); In the front of the stairs, the front and the rear seats with gaps in front of the two-storey intercity buses, the belt is mandatory for passengers who are seated in the direction of the vehicle from the seats around the table towards the direction of departure of the vehicle." (c) paragraph: "As of 1995, according to the provisions of this regulation, it is mandatory to keep and use belts in the rear seats of vehicles that are implied in our country or allowed to be imported from abroad. Other vehicle owners who are not involved and are still in use in traffic can optionally have the "Seat Belt" on Ruler 1 fitted according to their sample. In the rear seats of minibuses, provisions regarding seat belts in trucks, vans, tow trucks and intercity buses are applied in vehicles produced after 01.08.1998. The obligation to use seatbelts for those deemed necessary when driving these vehicles within the settlement may not be sought in accordance with the circulars to be issued by the Ministry of Interior." (d) paragraph: "In vehicles listed in subsection (b), it is forbidden to transport children under ten (10) years of age in the front seat next to the driver." The issue of penalties is regulated in Article 78/1-a of the Highway Traffic Law No. 2918. According to the law, those who do not have and do not use seatbelts in cars and minibus vehicles are punished with fines and 5 penalty points.