Communication and Communication Methods
Communication in war is as important as war itself. The party that cares more about communication on the battlefield can draw the war in the directions it wants. Because I don't know if I
- It can react much faster to changing conditions.
- With less resources and power, it can create more positive conditions.
- He can see the next move a long time in advance.
In order to achieve these results, many armies have tried to use the following methods.
"Victory is never in danger for you if you know yourself and your enemy well. Victory will never be exhausted for you if you know the sky and the earth well." Sun Tzu Martial Art
The radio was first used before World War I. The biggest improvement offered through messaging systems such as walrus code was the speed and accuracy of the use of voice communication. Advances in radio technology such as oscillators, amplifiers and electron tubes have made reliable voice communication possible. During the First World War, radio broadcasts were generally less preferred than using cable phones or telegrams. However, the radio is the first time the U.S. has been in the first world. Before his direct involvement in World War II, he really found a foothold at sea. President Wilson's 1914 executive order allowed the Navy to censor international telegrams sent or received via radio. Many, including America's Marconi Wireless Corporation, vehemently opposed the censorship ban, but launched the navy's participation in wartime radio. Navy radio stations with higher power signals than those sent from the front lines were able to transmit wartime news to ships at sea in a timely manner. Radio has proven in many ways that it is very valuable for wartime communication.
Telegraph communication begins when a receiver sends an electric current to the station. The sender presses the telegraph key. The receiver interrupts the current by creating an audible audible pulse at the station, thus starting communication. The receiver at the other end tries to understand the pulses to decode the message. Morse code is a system for sending messages with a series of on-off, light or clicks. Each letter is represented by a unique array of short dots and longer hyphens. The duration of a line is three times the length of a point. Each word is separated by a hyphen equivalent silence. It is very important that the transmitter is consistent because the message can be read completely incorrectly. The telegram cannot carry audio or other data. It relies on coups to communicate. The widespread use of the telegram was quickly accepted, as it allowed information to be transmitted between telegraph stations almost instantly, rather than with a horse rider and the message being transmitted weeks later. In 1866, the first permanent telegraph cable was laid across the Atlantic Ocean. During the First World War, during the war, armies used electric telegrams.Telegraph machines ensured that governments and their leaders received and were immediately informed about troop movements, war outcomes and other important issues.
During the French Revolution in 1792, Claude Chappe invented the semaphore line system. It was a method of communication that used visual signals and rotating shovels. The message was a system that was read when the shovels were in a fixed position. This system has shown that it is much faster than a horse and rider. It has also proven to be a much lower cost way to send messages once built. In 1792, Chappe built 556 semaphore towers across France, paving the way for communication over 3,000 square meters. This method of communication was used by the French army in the wars.
Before the appearance of the radio, carrier pigeons were often used as a means for a force moving on the battlefield to communicate with a stationary center. For the first time in the 6th century BC, Cyrus, the Persian king, used carrier pigeons to communicate with various parts of his empire. They were often used as military envoys because of their target search capabilities, speed and height.
A signal lamp is a visual signal source for optical communication that typically uses Morse code. Modern signal lamps are focused lamps that can produce light pulses. In large versions, this pulse is achieved by opening and closing a manually operated pressure switch or, in later versions, blinds that are automatically mounted in front of the lamp. In handheld lamps, a concave mirror is bent by a trigger to focus light on a pulse. Lamps are usually equipped with some kind of optical vision and are most commonly used on naval vessels and airport control towers (color signals are used for stopping or moving). In manual signaling, a signal receiver directs the light to the receiving vessel and turns on and off on the shutter lamp to emit flashes of light to spell out text messages in morse code. On the receiving ship, a signalman usually observes the light flashing through binoculars and translates the code into text. It was used to send a message to the military in american terrestrial campaigns like the Indian Wars. US During the Geronimo campaign, in which his army participated all over the country, it was used for long-distance communication without a fixed infrastructure. With the easy-to-carry and low power consumption aspect of the equipment, it has made it an ideal tool for military communication. Despite the many benefits of its communication, it is very limited by the terrain and weather conditions in which it operates.
Land phones were used on battlefields as an alternative to telegraphs and signal lamps. Shortly after the invention of the phone, attempts were made to adapt the technology for military use.Phones were already used in the late 1870s and early 1880s to support British military campaigns in India and the British colonies in Africa. The first phone used in the field was developed in the United States in 1889, but was too expensive for mass production. Field phones were running from point to point or over a switchboard.8.5 kilograms of wire per kilometer was spent from light bell wire. With a single power plant, it had a talking distance of about 8.0 square kilometers. Multiple varieties were used on battlefields according to terrain conditions.
States that were clearly damaged by communication during the war tried to create encrypted communication channels to prevent this.
During the war, one of the key aspects of communication is the ability to transmit messages in secrecy and security within the military and within allies. Nowadays, this is quite easy with the high-tech digital encryption systems available. However, during World War II, the 2016 During World War II, the necessity of secrecy of messaging forced allies and enemies to develop their own encrypted forms of communication. The methods used were numerous. These were traditional practices such as spy placement and trained carrier pigeons, and included newer electronic encryption systems. With this eletronic encryption machine, the Germans thought they were developing a completely unsolvable form of communication.
The German machine was known as Enigma. It resembled a typewriter capable of generating highly encrypted text messages. To use Enigma, the operator would first write the text, then turn a few wheels and pass the message through the machine. At the receiving end, the other operator would adjust its machines with the same wheel to resolve the message. Codebooks were distributed to message operators so that they could enter the correct decryption key when receiving messages. Initially, the German army invented and used it for commercial purposes before seeing the obvious potential of enigma. Theoretically, if the Germans adhered to strong standard operating procedures, it would be almost impossible to actually decipher their code. However, they ultimately set the stage for the Allies to become vulnerable, helping to decrypt the codes. As German troops attacked quickly and relentlessly, it became vital that the Allies cut off their intelligence and decrypted it. At the end of 1932, the Encryption Bureau in Poland bought an Enigma machine. They shared their knowledge with the British and French to develop code-breaking techniques. To create a special effort for this purpose, the British government established code and cipher schoolin Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire. They brought in math, logic and problem-solving experts. These new elements worked together to create prototypes of electronic machines (comparable to computers) to produce decryption on a larger and faster scale. They kept it highly classified, so that information could be prevented from leaking to German forces. Nazi Germany, meanwhile, thought encryption codes were completely secure while continuing to use Enigma in the army and secret services, but in the early days a few passwords had already been cracked. In 1941, the new passwords gave intelligence on Germany's plans to invade Greece. Shortly afterwards, experts at Bletchley decrypted classified intelligence on the Italian navy, resulting in the victory of the Cape Matapan War Allies. Later, other messages captured and decoded helped allied troops gain a significant advantage. Even after the war, these encoded communication machines and techniques greatly affected a number of other fields, especially in the field of computer science and electronic communication.
The Japanese bought an Enigma machine from Germany and decided to use the same principle to encode their message. As a result, japanese diplomats have been asked to resign in World War II. The device he used in World War II is purple. Purple used electromechanical "step switches" instead of using rotors operated by pressing keyboard keys. Purple was working with an electromagnet that moves through the latch mechanism and rotating contacts passing over electrical contact points. Although the whole machine was built in a different way, it was the equivalent of the four-rotor Enigma with an electric typewriter on both sides, or even a difficult machine to solve. American analysts have struggled with this difficult Japanese diplomatic code for eighteen months.
Fialka is a Cold War-era Soviet encryption machine. The device uses 10 rotors with mechanical pins, each with 30 contacts, to control step-by-step. It also benefits from a perforated card mechanism. Information about the machine was very little until 2005 because the device was kept secret. Also, Fialka means "violet" in Russian.
Lacida, also called LCD, was a Polish rotor encryption machine. It was designed and manufactured by Poland's Cipher Bureau before the Second World War for the possible wartime use of Polish military high commands.
SIGSALY is a machine that produces a random noise mask to encrypt voice calls encoded by white sound waves. His second task was to both minimize the amount of excess sound and reduce the amount of information to be encrypted.